1. External fuselage wing structure system
- The composition of the external fuselage wing structure system: fuselage, wing, and tail
- Their respective characteristics and working principles:
- Body: The fuselage is mainly used to load personnel, cargo, fuel, weapons and airborne equipment, and through it, the wings, tail, landing gear and other components are connected into a whole. In light aircraft, fighter aircraft, and assault aircraft, engines are often installed in the fuselage.
- Wing: The wing is the main component used to generate lift on an airplane, and is generally divided into two sides, left and right. Wings usually have straight wing, swept wing, delta wing and so on. The front and rear edges of the wing are kept basically straight, which is called a straight wing. The leading and trailing edges of the wing are both swept backward and called a swept wing. The plane shape of the wing is triangular and called a delta wing. The latter two are suitable for high-speed aircraft. Recently, advanced aircraft have also adopted flat shapes such as side strip wings and forward-swept wings.
- Rear wing: The tail is divided into two parts: vertical tail and horizontal tail.
2. Hydraulic system
- Divided by function: power components, executive components, control and adjustment components, auxiliary components
- Divided by sub-system: hydraulic source system and working system
The composition of the basic hydraulic system: fuel tank, pump control or door, two-way acting cylinder, engine driven pump, select valve.
Working principle: Use the incompressible liquid flow in the closed pipeline to transfer the pressure energy of the characteristic window to drive the aircraft components.
3. Landing Gear System
- The main function of the landing gear
- The function of the landing gear is to make the aircraft take off, land, taxi and park on the ground or on the water. It also absorbs the impact energy through the landing gear during landing to improve the landing performance.
- Rise and fall structure into form
- Early landing gear on land aircraft was relatively simple, with only three landing gears, and could not be stowed in the air, resulting in high flight resistance.
Modern land aircraft landing gear includes two parts, a landing gear and a device for improving landing performance, and the landing gear can be retracted after takeoff to reduce flight resistance. The devices that improve the landing performance mainly include thrusters, wheel brakes, and deceleration parachutes. The landing gear of the seaplane has floats instead of wheels.
4. The composition of the aircraft control system
Composed of main control system, auxiliary control system and warning system
- The main control system includes: aileron, elevator and rudder
- Auxiliary control system includes: lifting device, resistance increasing device and horizontal stabilizer
- Warning system includes take-off warning and stall warning
5. Cockpit environment control system
- The basic tasks of the cockpit environment system The cockpit and equipment compartment of the crashed aircraft have good environmental parameters under various flight conditions to meet the normal working and living conditions of the flight crew, passengers and equipment.
- Technical measures to overcome the unfavorable air environment
- Due to adverse conditions such as hypoxia, low pressure, and low temperature at high altitudes, certain technical measures must be taken to ensure the safety and comfort of personnel in high altitudes.
- Oxygen supply device
- Airtight cockpit (pressurized cockpit)
- Air source system
- The function of the air source system: to provide pressurized air with a certain flow, pressure and temperature to the pressure system.
- Air source system type: from gas turbine engine compressor, APU or ground air source.
- Cockpit air pressure adjustment system
- The main function of the cabin air pressure adjustment system is to control the air flow to the cabin, adjust the temperature, remove excessive moisture in the air, and finally distribute the air-conditioned air to the various air outlets of the cabin.
- The main components of the cabin air pressure adjustment system: cooling system, ram air system, temperature control system, recirculation system and distribution system and other subsystems.